Tag Archives: Extraterrestrial Life

Hypercivilisations and the primitive extraterrestrial hypothesis

More and more specialists admit that life is everywhere in Universe and three-four billion years of favourable conditions, lasting on a planet, ensures the emergence and development of intelligent beings and eventually the birth of a “technological civilization”, capable of building spaceships, for travelling to other inhabitable planets. These conditions, though rare, are found in many places in the immensity of the universe. On this basis, the extraterrestrial hypothesis became the easiest way to explain the UFO phenomenon.

UFOs-Over-RomaniaOn the other hand, prestigious ufologists, including Dr J. Allen Hynek or Jacques Vallée, questioned this explanation. They, along with die-hard sceptics, have mentioned, among others, that the distances between civilizations are too large for such cosmic travelling. But, as I have argued in my recent book “UFOs over Romania”, if we make an appropriate approach, we will discover that the most important distances between cosmic civilisations are not those in space but those in time.

I have estimated that in the history of our Galaxy could have come into being a number of technological civilisations, of which, maybe a few hundred survived the childhood diseases (that we face now on Earth) and still exist. But these civilisations have not arisen simultaneously. For example, in July 2015 it was announced the discovery at 1,400 light years from Earth, of the exoplanet Kepler 452b. It is similar to Earth, orbiting in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star. That solar system is one billion years older than ours. That means that life and a possible technological civilisation could have appeared here one billion years earlier than on Earth. More generally, the first technological civilisations in the Milky Way could appear a billion years ago, or even earlier. Consequently, we understand that the possible civilisations in the Cosmos are far apart from each other not only in space, but also in time. In our Galaxy, these several hundred surviving civilisations, estimated above, have appeared, most likely, one in a several million years. Therefore, in the Milky Way there is no civilisation close to our level.

What will become of our civilisation (if it will survive) over millions (or billions) of years? It is impossible to imagine. We do not forget that we are not able to predict our future, even in a perspective of just several hundred years. How would the inhabitants of a civilisation that has outstripped us with millions of years look like? Maybe they became immortal, maybe time and space do not matter to them, they may have moved into a pervasive virtual reality, in other dimensions and so on. But the real answer is almost certainly even much more complex and defies our logic and imagination. We can accept however that they have been transformed into something else, beyond our understanding; into something we can name as a “hypercivilization”.

If somebody considers that we were too optimistic and the intelligent beings are much scarcer, we should add that our Milky Way is only one of at least 150 billion, more or less similar, galaxies of the Universe accessible to our instruments. And we have strong reasons to believe that there are other Universes too, maybe “parallel” ones, maybe from other states of matter, or parts of a “Multiverse” etc.

Schooling and science fiction, but not only, set our minds on patterns ignoring completely the possibility of hypercivilisations. Consequently, we face two “extraterrestrial hypotheses”: the first is what we might call the “primitive extraterrestrial hypothesis”, the other that of hypercivilisations.

The “Primitive Extraterrestrial Hypothesis” assumes that all cosmic civilisations are more or less at the same level of evolution. Therefore it nurtures some false preconceptions as: very long and difficult cosmic voyages, wish to land on the lawn of White House, equal rights, conversation, invasion, intervention, aid and so on.

Exoplanets NASA ftr

This primitive view is completely implausible. If hypercivilisations exist (and they exist, with a probability of 99.999999%) they exploited, in the smallest detail, our Galaxy, millions of years ago, so they have known, for a long time, about our existence. This reasoning led Enrico Fermi, when he said, in 1950: “they should be here; where are they?” But neither he, nor many others, did consider that representatives of hypercivilisations could be here, among us, but could look so different from our expectations that we cannot recognise them. What prevents us to see them is, also, a set of widespread and deeply rooted prejudices, such as those below.

The preconception of equal rights. A difference of millions of years, or even hundreds of millions, is as huge as between us and a lizard or even an ant. If they are here (as it is highly probable), they can examine us, monitor our evolution, even contact us in some form, but they will never put them at the same level with us.

The preconception of conversation. As far back as 1959, Giuseppe Cocconi and Philip Morrison argued that if the difference between two civilisations is of millions of years, the probability that they could exchange ideas is zero. We interact sometimes with a lizard; but this will never be a conversation, they said.

The temporal provincialism (term used by Dr J. Allen Hynek). It states that, in opposition with the previous dark centuries, the last three-four hundred years brought us finally to the light of real truth and science. In this light, now we can decide what facts can be accepted and what will never be possible. If one hundred years ago or so we started to use the radio, some believe it will last as the best means of communications forever. If one hundred years ago Einstein postulated that the speed of light is a limit, no other physical law will be discovered until the end of times to avoid this limit and so on. As a peculiar example, we have the SETI preconception. According to it, even if the radio signals need thousands of years from one inhabited world to other, the cosmic civilisations will consider that signalling by radio waves will be, forever, the most appropriate means of contact and that we should spend money to search for them.

NASA-Antenas-SETI-ftr

The preconception of invasion. For many people it should be normal if a cosmic civilisation arrives on Earth, it will attempt to conquer us by force. But the hypercivilisations probably knew, millions of years ago, that we are here; therefore they could invade us at any time and, in a certain sense, probably we are already invaded by them, for millions of years. Some “out-of-place artifacts” could be a hint of that.

The preconception of intervention and of aid. Some hope that the ET will help us (or at least some “chosen”) to overcome future catastrophes. But even us, if we discover a valuable piece of land, which has escaped from the human intrusion, we try to declare it a reservation, permitting only a very limited intervention, for scientific reasons. This attitude seems to be strengthening in time. A hypercivilisation observing the Earth and the human technological civilisation should act in a similar manner, avoiding to interfere in our evolution, but taking samples, making some experiments, having very limited contacts (not at all officially or as between equals) with only some individuals, selected upon their and not our criteria.

Therefore no settlement, no destruction, on one hand and no official contact, conversation or substantial help, on the other hand, are to be expected from highly advanced cosmic civilisations, even if they are here now.

The difference between a hypercivilisation and us could be as high as that between us and ants. Some entomologists who would propose to study the life of an anthill will try to disturb, as little as possible, its life. They could of course make experiments, examining or modifying some ants, or even taking them in remote laboratories, trying to create new “races” and so on. They will certainly try to find out, as much as possible, about the life of the anthill, but will not “present credentials” to the queen of the ants. If the entomologists have the technology, they will create some robot ants, sending them in to the hill and watching from a safe place, for example “on the computer screen”, the data transmitted by them. And if a robot ant would be lost in that mission, the incident would add a bit to the costs of research, without being a tragedy.

Artist's rendition of the Milky Way's billions of planets. (credit: M. Kornmesser / ESO)

Artist’s rendition of the Milky Way’s billions of planets. (credit: M. Kornmesser / ESO)

We can speculate that a hypercivilisation could attempt to realise, using genetic materials from the Earth, new races, with greater brain, with higher intelligence, adapted for some special tasks, etc. Therefore, many “races” described by the alleged abductees (the greys, the tall blonds etc.) can be such artificial human races or even bio-robots derived from the human species. They can be “produced” for example in reservations or bases somewhere outside the Earth. In the same manner we make new varieties of wheat from the traditional ones. Sometimes, the perfect variety of wheat became sterile or exposed to new diseases. At that moment the agronomists will try to find some appropriate genes in the pool represented by the primitive species of wheat, to improve the “perfect” variety. What if humans on Earth are the “wild pool” of genes, suitable to improve some artificial races elsewhere? In this case it will be no problem of compatibility between the visitors and us, as in some of the reported UFO abduction and hybridisation stories, but also, for example, in the biblical note: “In those days, divine beings and human daughters had sexual relations and gave birth to children. These were the ancient heroes” (Genesis, 6, 4). Some people suppose even that there is an ongoing external intervention in the evolution of the human race in order to improve it.

But obviously the comparison above – of mankind with an anthill – is slightly forced, as mankind is, nevertheless, a potential future hypercivilisation. The arising of a technological civilisation could be a very rare event in our Galaxy, occurring probably once in several millions of years. So it is normal for us to be of interest to the higher intelligences. But what could they expect from us?

A hypercivilisation will behave elusively and will not give us its knowledge and technologies; even more, it will forbid that. This is not, only, because of human aggressiveness and xenophobia, making from all new technology new weapons, nor only to avoid a “cultural shock”, which could virtually destroy all our social, economical, political, military, scientific, religious and cultural structures. I can speculate they have also some other reasons for that. Hypercivilisations could wait (and maybe harvest even now) our original ideas, viewpoints, creations (in art, science, philosophy, ethics etc.), produced as a result of millions of years of our independent evolution. And all that expected crop could be destroyed by a premature contact.

Some old, apparently absurd, stories may be an indication of such an attitude: the punishment for the apple of the forbidden tree of knowledge, the chaining of Prometheus, or the fallen angels (from Book of Enoch), thrown into a pit full of fire, because they were taught earthlings some skills.

Many abductees or contactees spoke about ethereal light balls as “deposits of knowledge and intelligence”, recording “everything in the Universe”, among others, the life of all (or of the most interesting) individuals. We have some hints for this when we speak about: the “Book of Life”, “Akashic Records”, “collective unconscious”, or even “morphogenetic field” etc. That “super-memory” could be written on a “spiritual” support, or on something around us we are not yet able to imagine. Sometimes, some people, under certain conditions, could gain access to this data warehouse. In that way we can explain: channelling, “xenoglossia”, “walk-ins”, “reincarnation”, ghosts, etc. In such a virtual reality, time is different. We can travel in the past, live events, without changing the real past, or we can see scenarios of the future (sometimes apocalyptical), without accepting fatality.

Of course, all the above is not a proof that the hypercivilisations are the explanation for everything strange and particularly for UFOs. It is only one hypothesis; but – I think – one which cannot be easily discarded.

 

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Mark O’Connell – UFOs and Astronomer Dr. J Allen Hynek – June 26, 2017

Mark O'ConnellOpen Minds UFO Radio: Mark O’Connell has written several episodes of “Star Trek: The Next Generation” and “Star Trek: Deep Space Nine” — one of which, the DS9 episode “Who Mourns For Morn?”, was named by Hugo-winning science fiction writer Charlie Jane Anders as #72 on the io9.com list of the Top 100 Star Trek episodes of all time. Mark has had feature film projects in development with Disney, DreamWorks Animation, Launchpad Productions, Barcelona Films and Al Ruddy Productions. He currently writes the UFO blog “High Strangeness” and made his reality show debut in 2015 on “Mysteries at the Monument” on The Travel Channel. Mark has written “The Close Encounters Man,” the authorized biography of UFO scholar Dr. J. Allen Hynek. – Bio from Coast to Coast AM.

In this episode of Open Minds UFO Radio, we talk to Mark about his UFO interest, his book on Dr. J. Allen Hynek and his work as a UFO field investigator for the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON). We also delve into a couple topics suggested by listeners, including the rumors that Hynek was a double agent and was working for the CIA or FBI to derail UFO studies, and Hynek’s interest in comics that made fun of him. Don’t miss this interview about one of my favorite researchers in the UFO field.

For more information about Mark, visit www.HighStrangenessUFO.com.

 

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Daily UFO Headlines 6/20/2017

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More dubious “MJ-12” documents released from anonymous source

A podcast host claims to have received “Ultra Top Secret” UFO documents outlining a secret government program regarding UFOs. The 47 page documents reviews alleged UFO crashes, the recovery of extraterrestrial spacecraft and alien bodies. One section summarizes a supposed interrogation with an extraterrestrial being.

The documents were posted on the website of the podcast Midnight in the Desert. Midnight in the Desert was created for the return of famous late night paranormal talk show host Art Bell. However, after only a handful of episodes, Bell quit. His producer, Heather Wade, then took the reins.

mitd-heather_9to1 sm

In the Midnight in the Desert post, it says Wade received the documents “from a trusted source.” The article then states that the documents were sent to UFO researcher Stanton Freidman, known for investigating other alleged MJ-12 documents.

The Midnight in the Desert article says Freidman will look into the documents, but also claims “at this time we can find no evidence of forgery.”

Cover page of alleged documents on ET crashes and alien being recoveries. Click image to see files.

Cover page of alleged documents on ET crashes and alien being recoveries. Click image to see files.

Not everyone agrees. Many have voiced concern. Nick Pope, who investigated UFO for several years for the UK Ministry of Defence told the UK’s Daily Express, “These documents are completely and utterly bogus.”

“The language and the wider feel of these UFO documents is just plain wrong,” Pope continued. “It’s as if someone was playing buzzword bingo with all the words and phrases that excite UFO believers, and throwing in some New Age philosophy for good measure.”

As for the alleged interrogation of an ET, Pope tweeted: “The ‘interview with an alien’ read like a high school student attempting (badly) to write a science fiction short story. Must do better.”

This section does seem to be the most preposterous part of the document. In the beginning of the interview, when asked why they are here, the alien says, in part, it is because they “like trees.” When asked to elaborate, the being responds, “You see, we would hate to see you blow-up such a pretty little planet…”

So why would someone go to the work to fake these documents? Pope says, “As with previous such documents that have surfaced in the US, I suspect they’ve been hoaxed by someone on the fringes of the UFO community, playing an elaborate practical joke to see if they can put one over on the true believers.”

These are not the first “MJ-12” documents to allegedly be leaked by government insiders. The terms MJ-12 and Project Aquarius, an alleged MJ-12 project that is also referenced in the newly released papers, where first mentioned in a document released in the 1980s that where admitted by their author to be fake. Documents continued to be sent to UFO researchers from anonymous sources throughout the 80s and 90s.

The documents have been highly controversial among UFO researchers. Freidman believes he has shown some of them may be legitimate, but admits, most of them are hoaxes. Either way, the information in the documents has been very influential to the modern mythology surrounding alleged UFO conspiracies.

The documents can be seen at the original post on the Midnight in the Desert website.

 

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SETI scientists argue “Wow! Signal” still unidentified despite new report

In 1977, scientists working on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) recorded an unusually strong radio signal, the origin of which many scientists believe has not been explained. While the most exotic theory is that the signal is a call from ET, a paper published in the Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences claims the origins of the signal is much more mundane. They think a comet or two caused it. SETI scientists, including the senior astronomer at the SETI Institute, Seth Shostak, and the man who discovered the signal, disagree.

Seth Shostak

Seth Shostak

As Shostak puts it in a recent article, the “Wow! Signal” is in the “A-List” of signals recorded by scientists that may potentially have been generated by an intelligent extraterrestrial civilization. It is an exclusive list. Shostak did not mention how long the list is, but it can be argued the “Wow! Signal” is the only signal on that list.

In August of 1977, a signal was captured by a radio telescope called Big Ear at Ohio State University. Upon discovering the signal while reviewing the logs, astronomer Jerry Ehman circled it on the computer printout and wrote “Wow!” off to the side.

The signal was very strong, and according to Shostak, “It had all the characteristics one would anticipate from a signal produced by a deep space transmitter.”

However, despite efforts to capture the signal a second time, it was never heard again.

“So the WOW signal seemed destined to be an enduring mystery of the universe – maybe it really was ET launching a signal in our direction, a whistle that was either very short or very intermittent,” Shostak wrote. “Then again, perhaps it was something else…”

This is where the new paper in the Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences comes in. The paper is authored by Antonio Paris and Evan Davies. Interestingly, Paris, an astronomer at St. Petersburg College in Florida, also has an interest in UFOs. In fact, he was been an investigator for the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), and has lectured on the topic at several UFO conferences.

A scan of a color copy of the original computer printout, taken several years after the 1977 arrival of the “Wow!” signal. It was a strong narrowband radio signal detected by Jerry R. Ehman on August 15, 1977, while he was working on a SETI project at the Big Ear radio telescope of The Ohio State University. The signal appears to have come from an area of the sky with no stars or planets, northwest of the globular cluster M55. Image Credit: The Ohio State University Radio Observatory and the North American AstroPhysical Observatory (NAAPO).

In the paper, the authors argue that the signal likely came from a comet or two that was not catalogued at the time the signal was detected. That would explain why Ehrman and others would not have known suspected the comet(s).

“Neutral hydrogen is well known for generating radio static at a frequency of 1420 MHz, which is indeed the spot on the dial where the Big Ear overheard the signal,” admits Shostak. However, he continues, “The comet hypothesis, in my opinion, doesn’t work.  To begin with, there’s the slightly dismaying fact that I’ve never heard of anyone measuring strong hydrogen signals from a comet, and I’ve spent a lot of time on radio telescopes tuned to 1420 MHz.”

Shostak also points out that there were two receivers that examined the area of the sky the signal was received. The second sweep, which was only 70 seconds later.

“But the WOW signal only appeared in one of the feeds,” Shostak continued. “Of course, that could be explained if the signal simply went off the air in the time between observation by the first and second feed.  Terrestrial interference could be compatible with this requirement, easy peasy.  And a signal from impatient aliens could too.”

Comets, on the other hand, do not turn on and off. They move slowly, and should have been detected in the second feed.

Ehman recently told Live Science in a recent interview that he does not buy the comet theory for the same reasons Shostak presented.

“We should have seen the source come through twice in about 3 minutes: one response lasting 72 seconds and a second response for 72 seconds following within about a minute and a half,” Ehman told Live Science. “We didn’t see the second one.”

Antonio Paris

Antonio Paris

Paris admits this is an issue. However, he suggested to Live Science that the telescope might not have detected the signal in the second feed due to an error with the telescope itself.

“There is some data out there to suggest the issue is at the telescope end and not the phenomenon itself,”Paris told Live Science.

So the mystery continues. However, Paris has not finished making his case. He plans to continue to observe comets and the reasons behind why they create the signals.

“There have been a handful of studies, but I suspect we are the first to specifically build a 10-meter radio telescope to specifically look at this type of solar system body,” he said.

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Incredible Translucent dome-like Flying Saucer hovering in the sky over Sedona Arizona

The following incredible images were taken by a photographer last year on July 24, 2016 when he and his parents were on vacation in Sedona, Arizona staying at the Sunset Chateau.

The photographer states: There was a panoramic view of the sky from the balcony in our room where we would often go out and enjoy the beautiful scenery around us.

One day when I went to do so, I noticed something strange. There was an extremely large dome-shaped translucent figure hovering in the sky right before my eyes.

I immediately recognized the shape of it as something like a flying saucer.

I sat there and stared at this enormous figure in the sky for a couple minutes before I went inside to find my parents and bring them outside to show them.

Once my parents confirmed that it was indeed out of the ordinary, I began to take pictures. After approx. 7 minutes, the figure disappeared leaving a poof of clouds.

However, I was still staring at the sky memorized by what I just saw when the figure appeared again; only a small distance to the right of where it was before. About the same amount of time passed when the figure disappeared in the same manner again and never reappeared. Since this event is still in my mind I have decided to report it to Mufon under case 83628.

Editor’s Note: I have converted the images into negative to check if the original photos were edited or not but so far I cannot find any irregularities in the pictures. In my opinion, both negative images also clearly show the shape of a dome-like flying saucer.

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Alien Life on Saturn’s Moon, Enceladus? NASA Releases New Data | VIDEO

Alien Life on Saturn's Moon, Enceladus? NASA Releases New Data
Illustration of the interior of Saturn’s moon Enceladus showing a global liquid water ocean between its rocky core and icy crust. Thickness of layers shown here is not to scale. We once thought oceans made our planet unique, but we’re now coming to realize that ‘ocean worlds’ are all around us. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

     Two veteran NASA missions are providing new details about icy, ocean-bearing moons of Jupiter and Saturn, further heightening the scientific interest of these and other “ocean worlds” in our solar
By NASA
4-13-17

system and beyond. The findings are presented in papers published Thursday by researchers with NASA’s Cassini mission to Saturn and Hubble Space Telescope.

In the papers, Cassini scientists announce that a form of chemical energy that life can feed on appears to exist on Saturn’s moon Enceladus, and Hubble researchers report additional evidence of plumes erupting from Jupiter’s moon Europa.

“This is the closest we’ve come, so far, to identifying a place with some of the ingredients needed for a habitable environment,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate at Headquarters in Washington. ”These results demonstrate the interconnected nature of NASA’s science missions that are getting us closer to answering whether we are indeed alone or not.”

The paper from researchers with the Cassini mission, published in the journal Science, indicates hydrogen gas, which could potentially provide a chemical energy source for life, is pouring into the subsurface ocean of Enceladus from hydrothermal activity on the seafloor.

The presence of ample hydrogen in the moon’s ocean means that microbes – if any exist there – could use it to obtain energy by combining the hydrogen with carbon dioxide dissolved in the water. This chemical reaction, known as “methanogenesis” because it produces methane as a byproduct, is at the root of the tree of life on Earth, and could even have been critical to the origin of life on our planet.

Life as we know it requires three primary ingredients: liquid water; a source of energy for metabolism; and the right chemical ingredients, primarily carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur. With this finding, Cassini has shown that Enceladus – a small, icy moon a billion miles farther from the sun than Earth – has nearly all of these ingredients for habitability. Cassini has not yet shown phosphorus and sulfur are present in the ocean, but scientists suspect them to be, since the rocky core of Enceladus is thought to be chemically similar to meteorites that contain the two elements.

“Confirmation that the chemical energy for life exists within the ocean of a small moon of Saturn is an important milestone in our search for habitable worlds beyond Earth,” said Linda Spilker, Cassini project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California.

The Cassini spacecraft detected the hydrogen in the plume of gas and icy material spraying from Enceladus during its last, and deepest, dive through the plume on Oct. 28, 2015. Cassini also sampled the plume’s composition during flybys earlier in the mission. From these observations scientists have determined that nearly 98 percent of the gas in the plume is water, about 1 percent is hydrogen and the rest is a mixture of other molecules including carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia.

The measurement was made using Cassini’s Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) instrument, which sniffs gases to determine their composition. INMS was designed to sample the upper atmosphere of Saturn’s moon Titan. After Cassini’s surprising discovery of a towering plume of icy spray in 2005, emanating from hot cracks near the south pole, scientists turned its detectors toward the small moon.

Cassini wasn’t designed to detect signs of life in the Enceladus plume – indeed, scientists didn’t know the plume existed until after the spacecraft arrived at Saturn.

“Although we can’t detect life, we’ve found that there’s a food source there for it. It would be like a candy store for microbes,” said Hunter Waite, lead author of the Cassini study.

The new findings are an independent line of evidence that hydrothermal activity is taking place in the Enceladus ocean. Previous results, published in March 2015, suggested hot water is interacting with rock beneath the sea; the new findings support that conclusion and add that the rock appears to be reacting chemically to produce the hydrogen.

The paper detailing new Hubble Space Telescope findings, published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, reports on observations of Europa from 2016 in which a probable plume of material was seen erupting from the moon’s surface at the same location where Hubble saw evidence of a plume in 2014. These images bolster evidence that the Europa plumes could be a real phenomenon, flaring up intermittently in the same region on the moon’s surface.

The newly imaged plume rises about 62 miles (100 kilometers) above Europa’s surface, while the one observed in 2014 was estimated to be about 30 miles (50 kilometers) high. Both correspond to the location of an unusually warm region that contains features that appear to be cracks in the moon’s icy crust, seen in the late 1990s by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft. Researchers speculate that, like Enceladus, this could be evidence of water erupting from the moon’s interior.

“The plumes on Enceladus are associated with hotter regions, so after Hubble imaged this new plume-like feature on Europa, we looked at that location on the Galileo thermal map. We discovered that Europa’s plume candidate is sitting right on the thermal anomaly,” said William Sparks of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Sparks led the Hubble plume studies in both 2014 and 2016.

The researchers say if the plumes and the warm spot are linked, it could mean water being vented from beneath the moon’s icy crust is warming the surrounding surface. Another idea is that water ejected by the plume falls onto the surface as a fine mist, changing the structure of the surface grains and allowing them to retain heat longer than the surrounding landscape.

For both the 2014 and 2016 observations, the team used Hubble’s Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) to spot the plumes in ultraviolet light. As Europa passes in front of Jupiter, any atmospheric features around the edge of the moon block some of Jupiter’s light, allowing STIS to see the features in silhouette. Sparks and his team are continuing to use Hubble to monitor Europa for additional examples of plume candidates and hope to determine the frequency with which they appear.

NASA’s future exploration of ocean worlds is enabled by Hubble’s monitoring of Europa’s putative plume activity and Cassini’s long-term investigation of the Enceladus plume. In particular, both investigations are laying the groundwork for NASA’s Europa Clipper mission, which is planned for launch in the 2020s.

“If there are plumes on Europa, as we now strongly suspect, with the Europa Clipper we will be ready for them,” said Jim Green, Director of Planetary Science, at NASA Headquarters.

Hubble’s identification of a site which appears to have persistent, intermittent plume activity provides a tempting target for the Europa mission to investigate with its powerful suite of science instruments. In addition, some of Sparks’ co-authors on the Hubble Europa studies are preparing a powerful ultraviolet camera to fly on Europa Clipper that will make similar measurements to Hubble’s, but from thousands of times closer. And several members of the Cassini INMS team are developing an exquisitely sensitive, next-generation version of their instrument for flight on Europa Clipper.

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Alien Life – 7 Best Places in the Universe To Search

Alien Life – 7 Best Places in the Universe To Search

     In 1899, Nicola Tesla claimed he had tuned in radio broadcasts from the planet Mars, history’s first reported SETI signal. For most of the century-plus since, techniques have changed but the relentless focus among those seeking life beyond Earth has remained the same:
By Corey S. Powell
www.nbcnews.com
3-30-17

Mars, Mars, Mars. That fixation inspired two Viking landers, four rovers, 14 orbiters, and endless hopeful NASA news conferences, yet the evidence for Martian life remains a big round zero.

Meanwhile, other discoveries have been opening scientists’ eyes to a broader universe of possibilities. Data from the Galileo and Cassini probes showed that liquid water is wildly abundant inside our solar system’s icy moons. The Kepler space telescope has rapidly expanded the number of known planets, now 2,950 and counting. And as they have peeped deeper into the 200-billion-plus stars of the Milky Way, astronomers have started to realize that true ET signals might not look anything like signals at all.

This list reflects the latest thinking about where extraterrestrials might be hiding — a rich assortment of ocean moons, alien planets, and distant stars where something very odd, and possibly artificial, seems to be going on.

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Dwarf Planet Ceres May Host Alien Life



Dwarf Planet Ceres May Host Alien Life

     Organic molecules, the substance that serves as the basis for life, were discovered on the dwarf planet Ceres. Using infrared mapping technology, NASA’s Dawn spacecraft spotted the molecules in a 400-square-mile area, near the Ernutet crater.
By sputniknews.com
2-17-17

The study team reports that the material likely developed on the dwarf planet, instead of arriving through other objects like asteroids or comets.

…”It joins Mars and several satellites of the giant planets in the list of locations in the solar system that may harbor life.”

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How Might First Contact (with Aliens) Actually Go?



How Might First Contact (with Aliens) Actually Go?

There are countless challenges
from finding them to figuring out how to say hello

     Making contact with an alien species would be the most important event in human history. The fabric of human culture, ranging from the arts to science to religion, would be irrevocably altered. Of course, it hasn’t happened yet and there’s no guarantee that it ever will. But humanity is without a doubt looking. And it may be in our best interest to find them before they find us.
By David Grossman
Popular Mechanics
1-19-17

As Wendover Productions posits, with a somewhat militaristic and very un-Star Trek view of the whole endeavor, is that when two civilizations meet, one of them tends to be destroyed, historically. And the one that comes out unscathed, that tends to be the one that made the contact:

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