Hardcore bee species builds its nest in ash by an active volcano(!)

Bees can fly anywhere, so you’d think they’d have their choice of places to live. Well, these ground-nesting bees are so hardcore that they chose to live in the ash next to an active volcano. But why? In this paper, the authors attempt to explain why the bees might pick such a hazardous location, which is exposed to “continuous, strongly acidic gas emissions.” Their conclusion? “Notwithstanding the extreme nature of the site, and the co-occurrence of specialist natural enemies and predators,

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